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They were replaced in 5th century BC by Scythians, who ruled till 2nd century BC; Sarmatian tribes then replaced them.
At the end of this period the seas receded to the approximately present day coasts of Black, Azov and Caspian seas to form one big sea.
In 980, Prince Volodymyr defeated all his brothers and unified the country into one powerful state with Kyiv as the capital.
He adopted Christianity in 988 and started to convert the population, which had up to then, worshiped Pagan gods. He produced silver and gold coins with his portrait on one side and the trident on the reverse side (The trident is Coat of Arms of present day Ukraine).
Many plants and animals disappeared and only those, which could adapt to lower temperatures, such as fury mammoths and rhinoceroses, remained.
Later the ground froze up and soon ice sheets covered most of the northern part of Ukraine.